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Étude de la biominéralisation de carbonates intracellulaires et de silicates de magnésium hydratés dans des environnements lacustres alcalins

Abstract : Stromatolites are laminated organo-sedimentary rocks composed of Ca and/or Mg carbonates but also Mg-silicates in some cases. The processes involved in their formation are still poorly understood. The main goal of this thesis was to better understand the geochemical and geomicrobiological processes that favor the formation or dissolution of carbonates and Mg-silicates in Mexican alkaline lacustrine environments. Two main axes have been developed. The first axis focused on the study of 52 cyanobacterial strains, some forming ACC intracellular, others not forming ACC. The strains were analyzed for their ability to incorporate Ca. The impact of alkaline earth elements on the growth of some of the strains was determined. In this study we have shown that ACC+ cyanobacterial strains incorporate more Ca than others and they store this Ca strongly in ACC and in polyP. In addition, we determined that ACC+ strains need more Ca for their growth and some of them are capable to substitute Ca by Sr and Ba for this purpose. We propose that ACC inclusions 1) can serve as ballasts, 2) can buffer intracellular pH and balance the formation of HCO3 conversion hydroxide to CO2 during carbon fixation and 3) available inorganic carbon storage for carbon dioxide. In addition, polyP could be involved in Ca storage. More broadly, ACC+ cyanobacteria have contributed to the dissolution of calcium carbonate and by extension stromatolites. The second axis focused on the study of Mg-silicate formation in sediments and mesocosms of 3 Mexican alkaline lakes but also in laboratory experiments. Mineralogical and chemical analyzes of magnesium silicates have been coupled with geochemical characterization of the solutions. The study of sediments showed the formation of an Al-low and an Al-rich stevensite-like phase and of ferrous or non-ferrous saponite-like. Several interpretations have been proposed regarding their formation: 1) dissolution of hydromagnesite and biogenic silica frustules, 2) it is inherited from the water column, 3) it is related to the alteration of feldspaths within sediments and 4) biomineralization in the water column. It has also been shown that a cyanobacterial strain was able to induce precipitation of magnesium silicates in an unbuffered medium. Mg-silicate formation in mesocosms from alkaline lakes is thought to be directly related to the mineralogical composition of microbialites, and possibly diatoms that allow Si to be introduced into the solution and locally into the biofilm and is biologically influenced by microbial community EPS.
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Alexis de Wever. Étude de la biominéralisation de carbonates intracellulaires et de silicates de magnésium hydratés dans des environnements lacustres alcalins. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Sorbonne Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SORUS480⟩. ⟨tel-02926312⟩

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