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Origines et évolution de lignées hydrothermales

Abstract : The originality of the hydrothermal vents fauna led to the classification of some organisms under new high taxonomic ranks. However, previous molecular studies reassigned them to known lineages, leading to major reductions in such ranking. Classically in phylogenetic studies, optimizing both taxonomic sampling and molecular markers is challenging. This Ph.D project illustrates this limitation, but still provides breakthroughs in the understanding of the origin and evolution of three hydrothermal taxa. In Polynoidae worms, the multigenic approach, led on a large taxonomic and ecological sampling, indicates at least two colonization events of hydrothermal vents. However, the limited resolution of these markers for deep nodes prevented the clear understanding of such events. A similar limitation was previously encountered for Alvinocarididae shrimp and Bythograeidae crabs families in their respective infra-orders (Caridea and Brachyura). Here, two approaches aiming to search and identify markers were tested on these groups. The first one, based on the sequencing of the mitochondrial genome (easily generalizable), resolves deep nodes in Brachyura, and places the available Bythograeidae species near the Xanthidae. The second, based on transcriptome sequencing, allows the identification of molecular markers conserved enough to resolve inter-familial relationships in Caridea. Although this approach is less generalizable, the identified markers could be targeted a posteriori on a wide taxonomic scale using marker-specific probes.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02924873, version 1

Citation

Perrine Mandon. Origines et évolution de lignées hydrothermales. Biologie du développement. Sorbonne Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS467⟩. ⟨tel-02924873⟩

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