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Vecteurs synthétiques et approche mécano-biologique permettant d’optimiser l’utilisation des cellules souches en médecine régénérative

Abstract : An approach to regenerative nervous system medicine is to develop biological substitutes with restorative function using stem cells and biomaterials that can be coated with extracellular matrix molecules. We have developed pharmacologically active microcarriers, PAMs. These are PLGA based, biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric microspheres (MS) coated with adhesion molecules that provide 3-dimensional support for cells. The microcarriers thus associated with the stem cells make it possible, after implantation, to increase the survival and maintain the state of differentiation of the cells they carry, reinforcing their tissue repair effects. These PAMs can also release encapsulated growth factors and to enhance the release of encapsulated proteins a new polymer combination: PLGA-Poloxamer188 (P188) -PLGA has been developed in our laboratory. It has also been shown that PLGA-P188-PLGA PAMs functionalized with fibronectin and poly-Dlysineinduce better proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells than PLGA PAMs. These cells are very widely used in regenerative medicine because they are easy to collect, found in the bone marrow, and able to differentiate towards the chondrogenic lineage, osteogenic and under certain conditions,neuronal. We are working with a subpopulation of these cells called MIAMI cells (marrow isolated adult multilineage inducible) that engage in neuronal cell differentiation after treatment with 2growth factors (EGF / bFGF) and on a laminin matrix support. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of polymeric supports also regulate the behavior of stem cells (adhesion, survival and differentiation). The objective of this study is to study the effect of physicochemical and mechanical properties of surfaces i) MS on laminin and poly-D-lysineadsorption and ii) PAMs on adhesion and neuronal differentiation of MIAMI cells. We have shown that the presence of the hydrophilic "poloxamer 188" block in the PLGA-P188-PLGA polymer composition decreases the adsorption of adhesion molecules by forming a layer on these surfaces.On PLGA PAMs, the adhesion molecules adsorb well regardless of the overall charge of the molecules. These two PAMs have a positive overall charge and allow the attachment of cells to their surface. However, in short-term cell adhesion is stronger on PLGA PAMs compared to PLGA-P188-PLGA PAMs, but in the long-term the cells eventually adhere to both supports. PLGA-P188-PLGAhas a high free surface energy and these PAMs have a less rigid surface than PLGA PAMs. Our results suggest that these surface characteristics allow cells to adhere despite the low amount of laminin on these supports. In the long-term the cells exhibit the same behavior whatever the type of PAMs. They differentiate into neuronal cells expressing mature neuron markers such as the neurofilament-M and we find the same number of cells adhered to their surface. Furthermore, we have shown that cells are able to secrete extracellular matrix molecules in the same way on both types of PAMs, probably explaining the similarity of the behavior in long-term.
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Assia Rmaidi. Vecteurs synthétiques et approche mécano-biologique permettant d’optimiser l’utilisation des cellules souches en médecine régénérative. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Angers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ANGE0014⟩. ⟨tel-02918189⟩

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