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Impact of inflammation on the metabolic changes associated with obesity : dialogues between adipose tissue and the intestine

Abstract : White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a central role in the physiopathology of obesity and insulin resistance. During my PhD, I studied the cellular and molecular response of WAT to metabolic stress induced in mice by the administration of an isomer of linoleic acid (CLA). We used trans10,cis12 isomer of linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) as a tool to promote a lipoatrophic syndrome in C57BL/6J lean female mice. The short-term dynamics of this response was explored in WAT, gut and at systemic level, over two consecutive 7-day periods of t10,c12-CLA administration and withdrawal. Our results show that t10,C12-CLA-induced alterations in WAT included metabolic gene deregulation and extracellular matrix deposition. The immunological profile of WAT was markedly disturbed, with anti-inflammatory M2-polarized macrophage accumulation. Metabolic, immune and structural alteration were fully revered, but not always normalized after 7 days without treatment. The reversibility of WAT alterations indicates a more adaptive than pathological response to t10,C12-CLA. However, t10,c12-CLA-induced WAT deregulation is temporally linked to hyperinsulinemia supporting the primacy of WAT integrity for glucose homeostasis. No immune alteration was observed in response to t10,C12-CLA in the gut, where genes encoding tight junction proteins (claudin and occludin) were down regulated. Thus, part of the effects of t10,c12-CLA could be mediated by increased intestinal permeability. This study shows that in response to an acute nutritional stressor, WAT and glucose homeostasis could be rapidly regained. When the stress is more chronic, as in obesity, most of the interventions fail to reverse WAT dysfunctional state, underlining the big challenge in the years ahead of finding long-term therapeutic strategies in metabolic diseases.
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Maria Pini. Impact of inflammation on the metabolic changes associated with obesity : dialogues between adipose tissue and the intestine. Tissues and Organs [q-bio.TO]. École pratique des hautes études - EPHE PARIS, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015EPHE3030⟩. ⟨tel-02918185⟩

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