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Study of regulatory factors of translation in Escherichia coli

Abstract : The analysis of gene expression regulation is necessary to better understand bacterial adaptation to environment and to be able in a context of synthetic biology to optimize the production of molecules of interest. The goal of this thesis was to study translation at the genome-wide level and its relationship to other cellular processes using a systems biology approach. First, translation activity at the -omic scale (called the traductome) was measured : for each messenger RNAs, its percentage of copies in translation and ribosome density. For the first time, a complete picture of the translational state in fast growing E. coli cells was obtained, characterized by a majority of transcripts with a very high percentage of copies in translation but a low ribosome density. Our model identified sequence-related factors as determinants of translation but, more surprisingly, the model predicted the important role of a physiological parameter: the mRNA concentration. Thus, more concentrated mRNA would have higher percentage of copies in translation and higher ribosome density. For the first time, this effect of transcription on translation has been validated at the molecular level on several genes. We showed that an increase in mRNA concentration by transcriptional induction results in increases in percentage of copies in translation and in ribosome load.
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Huong Le Nguyen. Study of regulatory factors of translation in Escherichia coli. Microbiology and Parasitology. INSA de Toulouse, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019ISAT0004⟩. ⟨tel-02918158⟩

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