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3-D Genome organization of DNA damage repair

Abstract : Our genome is constantly under attack by endogenous and exogenous factors which challenge its integrity and lead to different types of damages. Double strand breaks (DSBs) constitute the most deleterious type of damage since they maylead to loss of genetic information, translocations and cell death. All the repair processes happen in the context of a highly organized and compartmentalized chromatin. Chromatin can be divided into an open transcriptionally active compartment (euchromatin) and a compacted transcriptionally inactive compartment (heterochromatin). These different degrees of compaction play important roles in regulating the DNA damage response. The goal of my first project was to understand the influence of 3D genome organization on DNA repair. I used two complementary approaches to induce and map DSBs in the mouse genome. My results have shown that enrichment of the DNA damage repair factor γH2AX occurs at distinct loci in the mouse embryonic stem cell genome and that the damage persists in the heterochromatin compartment while the euchromatin compartment is protected from DNA damage. For my second project, I mapped the genomic footprint of 53BP1, a factor involved in DSBs repair, in asynchronous and G1 arrested U2OS cells to identify novel 53BP1 binding sites. My results have identified novel 53BP1 binding domains which cover broad regions of the genome and occur in mid to late replicating regions of the genome.
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Ujjwal Kumar Banerjee. 3-D Genome organization of DNA damage repair. Genomics [q-bio.GN]. Université de Strasbourg, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017STRAJ121⟩. ⟨tel-02918067⟩

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