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Rapport à la terre, conflits et hiérarchies sociales en Basse Bretagne au XVIIIe siècle

Isabelle Guégan 1
1 CRBC Brest - Centre de recherche bretonne et celtique
IBSHS - Institut Brestois des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société, UBO - Université de Brest, CRBC - Centre de recherche bretonne et celtique
Abstract : The domaine congeable, a system of land renting specific to Western Brittany, is in the heart of our study. It is based upon the separation between the land on one hand and the edifices and superfices (houses, stables, barns, embankments and so on…) on the other. If the land belongs to a landlord, the edifices and superfices are most often owned by a tenant, called convenancier or domanier. In Cornouaille, the landlord lets his land to the tenant for a rent for a period of nine years. If he wishes to part with his tenant, the landlord can dismiss him after the edifices andsuperfices have been evaluated and paid back to the tenant. Our aim is to show that, in spite of the many criticisms that have been levelled at it, the domaine congeable worked quite well during the XVIIIth century, even if it tailed off on the eve of the French Revolution (conflicts over woods, ban on building without the landlord’s consent).Under an apparent rigidity, it enabled a class of well-off farmers to emerge, all the more so because the risk of being dismissed was relative, this prerogative being rarely used by the landlord, who let a farmer dismiss the tenant in place. The fact that the tenancies / tenures under domaine congéable were owned by a class of well-off farmers rendered the land market rather dull because a very great number of land transactions were made within a limited number of families, which perpetuated accordingly the supremacy of those families over the Breton countryside.
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Isabelle Guégan. Rapport à la terre, conflits et hiérarchies sociales en Basse Bretagne au XVIIIe siècle. Histoire. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BRES0044⟩. ⟨tel-02918056⟩



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