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Combination of biochemical, molecular and biophysical approaches to investigate the impact of strain background and production process on the yeast cell wall composition and molecular architecture

Abstract : Due to increasing yeast biomass production resulting from the expansion of the Biorefinery as an alternative to petrol-based energy, the yeast cell wall is receiving an increasing interest as an added value product targeting agro-nutrition markets, such as in animal nutrition and in wine for its probiotic and sorption properties. The purpose of this thesis was therefore to combine DNA microarrays, biochemical and biophysical approaches in order to investigate the relationships between these parameters as well as to highlight the impact of strains, growth conditions and processes on the cell wall composition and biophysical properties. To achieve this objective, an acido-enzymatic method was developed to specifically quantify each of the four components of the yeast cell wall, namely mannan, chitin, β-1,3-glucan and β-1,6-glucan. This method was validated on mutant strains and allowed highlighten various stresses effects. Then, the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has allowed investigating the same strains and four strains used in industrial fermentation. They demonstrated distinct nanomechanical and adhesive properties, due to differences in their cell wall structure and composition. In the last part, the effects of the autolysis and fluid-bed drying processes are presented. This industrial process does not change the composition of the cell wall but induces a modification in topography and surface properties of the cell. Moreover, using AFM we imaged on S. cerevisiae cell surface highly adhesive patches forming nanodomains.
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Marion Schiavone. Combination of biochemical, molecular and biophysical approaches to investigate the impact of strain background and production process on the yeast cell wall composition and molecular architecture. Biotechnology. INSA de Toulouse, 2014. English. ⟨NNT : 2014ISAT0043⟩. ⟨tel-02918049⟩

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