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Hypothyroïdie et processus neurodégénératifs associés à la maladie d’Alzheimer

Abstract : Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease and to date no single cause for the sporadic forms, which accounts for over 99% of the cases, has been established. Converging evidence suggests a possible link between thyroid dysfunctions and AD. The aim of the present study was to explore the possibility that adult hypothyroidism represents an etiopathogenic mechanism of AD. In this context, using a hypothyroid rat model induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment, we report that hypothyroidism is associated with several AD-Associated hallmarks in the hippocampus, a brain structure affected in early stages of AD and which plays a crucial role in memory processes. In vivo MRI revealed a progressive decrease in cerebral volume of hypothyroid-Rats. In the hippocampus, hypothyroidism resulted in Tau hyperphosphorylation, increased levels of amyloid peptide and of several pro-Inflammatory cytokines. These AD-Related pathological hallmarks were associated with impaired short- and long-Term spatial memory and alteration of hippocampal signalling pathways important for synaptic plasticity and memory, including calcium and ERK-MAPK pathways. To test the potential reversion of PTU-Induced lesions, we injected hypothyroid rats with triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of thyroid hormone. Our results show that intraperitoneal injections of T3 restored spatial short-Term, but not long-Term memory in hypothyroid-Treated rat. Furthermore, levels of pro-Inflammatory cytokines, amyloid peptide and of proteins involved in calcium and ERK-MAPK signalling were restored. These data strengthen the link between hypothyroidism and AD, supporting the idea that hypothyroidism may represent an important factor impacting the risk for developing sporadic forms of AD.
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Amina Chaalal. Hypothyroïdie et processus neurodégénératifs associés à la maladie d’Alzheimer. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA11T095⟩. ⟨tel-02918042⟩

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