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Calcul d'itinéraires multiples et de trajets synchronisés dans des réseaux de transport multimodaux

Gregoire Scano 1
1 LAAS-ROC - Équipe Recherche Opérationnelle, Optimisation Combinatoire et Contraintes
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes
Abstract : Efficiency and simplicity are two conditions upon which the use of a transportation system is relevant. May it be intentional or imposed, an increasing mobility triggers the need to enhance the transportation offer. In turn, such a response encourages an even more demanding mobility in a constantly adapting cycle. In parallel, new and forthcoming means of transportation emerge from time to time with unknown practices and renewed actors : exactly like what carpooling is stirring at the moment. Passenger information systems can technically deal with such evolutions thanks to improved technologies but they still struggle to keep up with constantly changing usage expectations.From this perspective the computation of several paths from an origin to a destination becomes increasingly relevant. This issue is even more crucial in dense transportation networks in which many modes and lines of transportation are combined. Indeed, giving some traveling choices to the end user reduces the feeling of exclusion, anxiety and the lack of understanding which may arise when facing arbitrary decisions dictated by a software or an Internet application. It is also helpful to estimate the quality of the transportation offer since the more paths exist to go from point A to point B within a fixed time window, the better the service is. This thesis focuses on the computation of such alternatives by the gradually increasing enumeration of paths between two points. Given this input, the pruning necessary to obtain such a diverse selection is assumed not to be known in advance. It is left up to transportation professionals who may choose a fitted solution based on their specific knowledge and objectives.Another subject studied in this thesis concerns the itinerary synchronization of several users for various social uses such as shared travels. It is here seen from the perspective of carpooling. Considering only two users, the problem is to minimize the traveling cost of the users under the constraint that they must share some part of their respective trips with one another. Solving this problem is equivalent to finding a pick up point and a drop off location between which both paths overlap. Multiple corner cases concerning the transportation conditions of each user as well as the special cases of shared origins or destinations are studied. The constraints on the arrival and/or departure times may also vary. Last but not least and since the driver is often penalized when giving up a lift, the restriction to a maximal detour the driver accepts, compared to his shortest path, is analyzed with respect to the benefits such a limitation generates.This thesis was funded by the MobiGIS company under the CIFRE (Industrial Agreement of Training through Research) researching context. The related work consisted in the practical implementation of mobility solutions within the framework of the company as well as the experimental performances evaluation of the algorithms proposed to solve them.
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Gregoire Scano. Calcul d'itinéraires multiples et de trajets synchronisés dans des réseaux de transport multimodaux. Analyse numérique [math.NA]. INSA de Toulouse, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ISAT0006⟩. ⟨tel-02917965⟩

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