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Polluants organiques : analyse, application au « biomonitoring » environnemental et introduction des biopesticides (algues marines) comme alternative

Abstract : In a context where environmental concerns due to pollution are growing on a global scale, monitoring of environmental pollution is a major research challenge in order to preserve as much as possible a healthy and sustainable environment. Indeed, the responsible and continuous monitoring of the environment escorted by the development of "green" pest control alternatives could certainly decelerate or even inhibit the spread of harmful pollutants into the entire biosphere. In this context, the main objectives of this thesis are intended firstly to characterize air quality by a biomonitoring-based approach and, secondly, to develop a biopesticide of algal origin, that allows the protection of post-harvested citrus fruit, as an alternative to the use of conventional chemical treatments. In order to answer the first objective, multi-residues extraction methods were developed. These methods were either specific to a family of pesticides such as dithiocarbamates or wider and more general regarding numerous pollutants such as pesticides, PAHs and PCBs. The latter were based either on the ASE-SPE-SPME, or on the QuEChERS-SPME, and formed the base of environmental biomonitoring studies undertaken. These monitoring studies allowed the assessment of spatial and temporal changes in air quality through natural species acting as biological sensors of environmental pollution and subsequently allowing the estimation of pollution in well-defined areas. To answer the second objective aqueous extracts of green algae, Ulva linza and Ulva lactuca, were prepared and tested as in vivo and in vitro antifungal agents, in order to study their ability to inhibit the development of Penicillium digitatum on post-harvested citrus fruits. A potential of post-harvested citrus fruits’ protection against this fungus was proved, giving hope to the reliability of this approach as a biological alternative for the replacement of potentially toxic chemical pesticides.
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Joséphine Al-Alam. Polluants organiques : analyse, application au « biomonitoring » environnemental et introduction des biopesticides (algues marines) comme alternative. Chimie analytique. Université de Strasbourg; Université libanaise, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017STRAF019⟩. ⟨tel-02917953⟩

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