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Etude de la voie de signalisation GBF1-ARF au cours de la réplication virale

Abstract : GBF1 has recently emerged as a cellular factor essential for the replication of single-stranded positive-sense RNA ((+)RNA) viruses from different families. GBF1 is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor of small G proteins of the Arf family, known to regulate the early secretory pathway. By studying the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a model, we have shown that the role of GBF1 in viral replication is distinct from its regulatoryfunction of the sercretory pathway. Indeed, GBF1 function in HCV replication is mediated by Arf4 and Arf5,whereas another pair, Arf1 and Arf4, mediates the regulation of the secretion. To determine if this mechanism ofaction is conserved among (+)RNA viruses, we showed that GBF1 is involved in yellow fever virus (YFV),sindbis virus (SINV), human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) infection. Our results indicate that YFV, SINV and HCoV-229E infections are Arf4 and Arf5 dependent, as we previouslyshowed for HCV. However, YFV and SINV would also use another Arf pair, Arf1 and Arf4, during their lifecycle. In addition, CVB4 infection depends on GBF1, but doesn’t seem to depend on any Arf. Although GBF1 is required for (+)RNA viruses replication, its mechanism of action appears not to be conserved.The Arf4-Arf5 pair appears to be involved in the replication of several (+)RNA viruses. However, these twoproteins have been poorly studied so far, contrary to Arf1. Our hypothesis is that the Arf4-Arf5 pair regulatesspecific effectors involved in viral replication. Our results indicate that Arf4 and Arf5 simultaneous depletionalters the morphology of the Golgi apparatus, which becomes condense, and of lipid droplets (LD), whichaccumulate and grow bigger at the cell periphery. However, a lipidomic analysis of Arf4 and Arf5 depleted cellsdisplayed an unaltered lipid composition, which suggests a morphologic impact on LD, rather than a disruptionof the lipid metabolism. A transcriptomic analysis identified proteins up- or down-regulated after Arf4 and Arf5 depletion. We assessed the function of some of these proteins in HCV replication, but none of them proved implicated.In conclusion, our results hightlighed new GBF1 functions, mediated by the pair Arf4-Arf5. Arf4 and Arf5 are involved in regulating the morphology of Golgi complex and of LDs, as well as the replication of (+) RNA viruses. It remains to assess if these functions are independent or related to each other, and which specific effectors they use.
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Juliette Ferlin. Etude de la voie de signalisation GBF1-ARF au cours de la réplication virale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S047⟩. ⟨tel-02917670⟩

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