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Implication des fibroblastes adventitiels d'artères intrapulmonaires dans la physiopathologie de l'hypertension pulmonaire : rôle des canaux TRPV4

Abstract : Pulmonary circulation is a low pressure system (between 10 and 15 mmHg at rest). Its first role is blood oxygenation which allows to carry dioxygen to the organs fontionnality. Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is one of the main pulmonary diseases. It is a rare and potentially fatal disorder, defined by a high arterial pulmonary mean pressure (greater than or equal to 25 mmHg at rest). This high pressure can be explained by the elevation of pulmonary arterial resistance and related to narrowing of the lumen of the artery, induced, among other, by the arterial remodeling in this pathology. Indeed, during the pathology implementation, the structure of the all three layers constituting the artery wall (intima-media-adventitia) is altered. The media and intima have received much attention from vascular biologists, howewer an increasing volume of experimental data indicates that this third compartment undergoes earlier and dramatic remodeling during PH. More specifically, the fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in adventitia, may act as key regulator of pulmonary vascular wall structure and function from the "outside-in". The fibroblasts may play the role of “sentinel cell” in the vessel wall. In responding to various stimuli, these cells are the first artery wall cells to show evidence of “activation” as proliferation, myofibroblast differenciation, migrationand invasion in the other wall layer, and extracellular matrix production. That way, fibroblasts participate directly to the overall artery remodeling observed in PH. Calcium is involved in numerous cellular signalling pathways such as those previously described. In the laboratory, we already proved that TRPV4 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid) channel, a non-selective cationic channel calcium permeable, is involved in media remodeling. Moreover, several datas show that this channel play an important role in diseases in which we observe a negative role of fibroblast such as sclerodermia, cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis. Considering these results, we were interested in the role of TRPV4 in fibroblast during PH more precisely in the adventitial remodeling process observed in this pathology. We first demonstrated the involment of TRPV4 in the adventitia remodeling regarding the tissue. Using two different animal models of PH, chronic hypoxia and monocrotalin models, we identified that this protein was up-regulated in sick rats and the mouse knock-down for this gene developed attenuated PH and adventitia remodeling compare to the control. Then we studied the role of TRPV4 in the mechanism leading to the adventitia remodeling. Thanks to pharmacological molecule and siRNA we proved that activation of TRPV4 increased proliferation (BrdU assay), migration (wound assay) and fibrotic activity such as excessed production of extracellular matrix (using western blot analyse) of the fibroblasts. With all these results, it would be interested to culture fibroblasts in hypoxic conditions and/or subjecting themselves to chronicle stretch to imitate HTP pathology and evaluate TRPV4 role in these conditions
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Laure-Anne Cussac. Implication des fibroblastes adventitiels d'artères intrapulmonaires dans la physiopathologie de l'hypertension pulmonaire : rôle des canaux TRPV4. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0115⟩. ⟨tel-02917534⟩

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