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Une histoire de deux membranes. Transition de l'enveloppe cellulaire des Firmicutes

Abstract : The bacterial cell envelope is of the utmost importance in bacterial physiology, constituting the selective barrier of the bacterial cell. Curiously, two distinct types of cell envelope exist in bacteria: monoderm (Gram-positive) with a single membrane, and diderm (Gram-negative) with two membranes. When and how the transition between monoderm and diderm bacteria occurred is one of the greatest questions in evolutionary biology, and incites intense debate. Fortunately, we have ideal model organisms that can help better understand this transition: Negativicutes and Halanaerobiales. These two distinct and diverse clades of bacteria represent an evolutionary enigma; they belong phylogenetically to the classical monoderm Firmicutes, yet possess outer membranes (OM) with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) similar to classic diderm bacteria. The three goals of this Doctoral work are to: 1. Describe the outer membranes of diderm Firmicutes, 2. Elucidate the evolutionary history of these envelopes, 3. Find a mechanism of transition between diderm and monoderm Firmicutes.
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Daniel Poppleton. Une histoire de deux membranes. Transition de l'enveloppe cellulaire des Firmicutes. Microbiology and Parasitology. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066733⟩. ⟨tel-02901706⟩

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