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Rôle du facteur de transcription Sox9 dans l'homéostasie et la tumorigenèse intestinales

Abstract : The intestinal homeostasis maintenance involves a permanent crosstalk between the epithelium, the microbiota and the immune system. ISC are responsible for the intestine renewal and regeneration, but they can also cause intestinal tumors. The Sox9 transcription factor is an interesting candidate as a key regulator of intestinal homeostasis because of its specific expression in ISC, Paneth cells and tuft cells. In addition, Sox9 is essential for the differentiation of Paneth cells since the loss of Sox9 in the mouse embryo (model Sox9LoxP / LoxP, Villin-Cre) leads to the absence of Paneth cells. First, we analysed the function of Sox9 in the adult intestinal epithelium using the inducible mouse model: Sox9LoxP / LoxP; Villin-CreERT2. We demonstrated that the deletion of Sox9 in adult Paneth cells leads to structural and functional alterations of Paneth cells, which induce alterations of bacterial diversity (dysbiosis). Dysbiosis is "sensed" by tuft cells that initiate a type 2 immune response. This study revealed the key role of Sox9 in adult Paneth cells to regulate intestinal homeostasis, thus preventing the establishment of a proinflammatory microbiota. Tuft cells, via their sensing function, are able to modulate mucosal immunity in response to a dysbiosis and thus participate in the formation of a vicious circle. In addition, we studied the biology of ISC, by integrating the contribution of Paneth cells properties that participate in the establishment of the niche. We analysed the properties of stem cells in a healthy context or during tumor initiation. Our data indicate that in a healthy context, Sox9 is required for the regulation of ISC fate, namely the balance between ISC self-renewal and differentiation. The mechanisms regulated by Sox9 involve cellular metabolism, a key player in the stem cells fate. Our work shows that an intact niche maintenance is necessary to control ISC fate. The deletion of Sox9 alters mitochondrial integrity and promotes mitochondrial ROS production that could modulate the ISC fate toward a differentiated state. In parallel, we demonstrated that Sox9 deletion concomitant with the acquisition of an initiating event such as the loss of function of the tumor suppressor gene Apc, affects the CSC and their cellular metabolism. The evaluation of the role of the Sox9 transcription factor in the control of metabolic homeostasis will provide a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms in ISC biology, and eventually new therapeutic strategies targeting CSC might be proposed.
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Julie Nguyen. Rôle du facteur de transcription Sox9 dans l'homéostasie et la tumorigenèse intestinales. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MONTT046⟩. ⟨tel-02899840⟩

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