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Fonctionnement hydraulique et propriétés épuratoires de techniques alternatives de gestion des eaux pluviales – cas des noues

Abstract : Swales are vegetated open-drainage systems which are increasingly being used by practitioners to manage stormwater runoff. Swale’s design has considerably evolved from the 1980s (geometry, soil materials, vegetal cover), expanding their functionalities. While standard swales (built by merely grading a local topsoil) are traditionally implemented on the field to canalize the runoff, new types of swales composed with filtering media offer promising perspectives to manage the stormwater pollutant fluxes. The goals of this research are to (i) improve the knowledges about the pollutant removal and hydrologic performances of swales, and to (ii) assess the dominant factors (design factors, runoff characteristics) influencing these performances in order to optimize swale design. The statistical investigations on an original swale database, specifically set up for this study, show that most of the highest removal efficiencies are associated to the pollutants including a particulate form. The inflow concentration was identified as a major factor influencing the pollutant removal efficiencies of swales. To better characterize swale hydraulics and pollutant treatment, and to evaluate under controlled conditions some factors that could affect their performances (swale materials, inflow pathway), a pilot system, comprising two distinct types of swale (a standard swale and a filtering swale), was specifically built at the CSTB Nantes. This original facility provides supplying the swales with a wide variety of artificial urban runoff events in terms of flowrates, pollutant loads and inflow pathways (lateral diffuse inflows or concentrated upstream inflows). The analyses of the swale responses to different water supply conditions were based on the measurements from various measuring devices providing a thoroughly characterization of water and pollutant load fluxes. The experimental investigations on this pilot facility demonstrate that the filtering swales could offer improved hydrological and pollutant treatment benefits compared to the standard swales. The experimental investigations also highlight the benefits from supplying a swale with lateral inflows compared to upstream inflows.
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Alexandre Fardel. Fonctionnement hydraulique et propriétés épuratoires de techniques alternatives de gestion des eaux pluviales – cas des noues. Génie civil. École centrale de Nantes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ECDN0018⟩. ⟨tel-02896888⟩

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