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Développement et évaluation de tests antigéniques rapides pour le diagnostic d’infections méningococciques et pneumococciques

Abstract : Nowadays, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) are essential tools for an urgent response in infectious diseases. Many tests are available to search for different pathogens (HIV, group A streptococcus, plasmodium ...) in various biological samples (urine, cerebrospinal fluid or CSF, blood ...). The main advantages of this mode of diagnosis are speed, simplicity of implementation, including by non-specialists or outside a laboratory structure, and reasonable cost. In this “CIFRE” (industrial) thesis, we present three RDTs based on lateral flow immunochromatography (LFIA) that we contributed to develop and evaluate.The first TDR targets Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium responsible for severe outbreaks of meningitis in resource-limited countries, in CSF samples. This RDT is the only LFIA-type commercial test that can detect 5 of the 6 major serogroups involved in the disease (A/C/W/X/Y). A study published under the authority of the meningococci reference centre at the Institut Pasteur of Paris showed the excellent performances of this test on nearly 560 CSF samples collected from 6 countries including 5 in Africa.The second TDR targets Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine and CSF; it is also intended to the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. This test, coupled with the previous one, is the object of a multicentric study presently conducted in West Africa under cover of WHO.The third TDR is an avatar of the previous one but was dedicated to respiratory secretions. Called PneumoResp, it introduces the concept of semi-quantitative RDT. It proposes to perform the test on undiluted secretions and, in the case of positive result, on 1:100-diluted secretions. We present an algorithm (which is the object of a patent pending appraisal) that aims to differentiate S. pneumoniae carriage from invasive infection by this germ in children. Compared to conventional techniques (semi-quantitative culture and qPCR assays), the test performed on 196 respiratory specimens showed an excellent sensitivity and a very good negative predictive value, allowing to exclude or suspect an active S. pneumoniae infection as soon as the first day.
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Cyrille Hedi Haddar. Développement et évaluation de tests antigéniques rapides pour le diagnostic d’infections méningococciques et pneumococciques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSES065⟩. ⟨tel-02896584⟩

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