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Performances des capteurs à fibres optiques basés sur les diffusions Brillouin, Rayleigh et Raman en environnement sévère

Abstract : This thesis was carried out in collaboration between Andra (The National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste) and the Hubert Curien laboratory (Joint Research Unit CNRS 5516) of the Jean Monnet University of Saint-Étienne.In this work, I evaluated the performance of fiber optic sensors for monitoring the geological disposal site of long-lived radioactive waste (Cigéo project). This application requires regular, remote and distributed monitoring of the evolution of different quantities of interest such as: temperature, deformation and the presence of hydrogen (as well as their combinations) in a severe radiative environment. The proposed solution is based on the follow-up of optical signatures evolution of these wave-guides via backscatter studies: Brillouin, Rayleigh, and Raman.In order to answer this problem, several interrogation systems have been tested (used). According to their specificities, they are differentiated by: their types of analysis, their spatial resolutions, their optical budgets and scopes...The selection of the studied optical fibers is a key element for this type of application as they have to withstand these extreme environments over long periods of time. In this work, I studied the responses of optical fibers containing different dopants, in particular Ge and F. I quantified the effects of gamma radiation, temperature, deformation and the presence of hydrogen on the quality (sensitivitiy) of the distributed measures.My work has identified the optical fiber type to be used for these harsh environments. The interrogators’ responses are driven by these fiber types as well as their lengths and, consequently, make it possible to clearly define the dimensions of the areas to be monitored. The qualities of the measurement are governed by the choice of several parameters and in particular: the pulse duration, the power injected into the fiber, the frequency steps, the measurement duration ... these elements have a direct impact on the final resolutions (spatial and frequency) of measured quantities. Particular attention must be attached to these criteria.
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Isabelle Planes. Performances des capteurs à fibres optiques basés sur les diffusions Brillouin, Rayleigh et Raman en environnement sévère. Optique [physics.optics]. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSES048⟩. ⟨tel-02895089⟩

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