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Pertinence et limites des tensions de surface et de ligne pour rendre compte des formes des cellules épithéliales

Abstract : Building a physical framework to account for the shape of cells in epithelia is an important challenge to understand various biological processes, such as embryogenesis. The work presented in this thesis aims to understand how surface tensions and line tensions shape epithelial cells, using microstructured substrates, confocal fluorescence microscopy, force inference and theory. We cultured epithelial cells on either flat or curved substrates and we explored the influence of the curvature of the substrate on the shape of these cells, especially the resulting thickness of the epithelial sheet. The model we propose to account for our measurements aims at computing the shape of individual cells within an epithelium using differentiated surface tensions for the different interfaces (cell-cell, cell-substrate and apical surface tensions) and an apical line tension. We combined these measurements with force inference within the tissue using both the shape of cells in the epithelial sheet plane and the shape of the intercellular junctions within the thickness of the epithelium. We thus can infer which parameters determine the three dimensional shape of the cells and we can evaluate values for the different interfacial tensions by comparing the three-dimensional cell shape measurements with the predictions of the model and the predictions of force inference.
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Nicolas Harmand. Pertinence et limites des tensions de surface et de ligne pour rendre compte des formes des cellules épithéliales. Physique [physics]. Université de Paris, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UNIP7002⟩. ⟨tel-02892746⟩

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