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La lumière focalisée dans les spectacles parisiens du XIXe siècle

Abstract : Through the analysis of a wide range of technical sources (patents, treaties, manuals) and artistic sources (plays, “livrets de mise en scène”, iconography), this study proposes an analysis of the emergence of focused light on Parisian stages, and the transformations of the scopic regime specific to the theatre induced by this new lighting. From the 1840s onwards, shows (dramatic, lyrical, or dance) regularly feature "rays of light", produced by optical devices (lenses, streetlights), which make it possible to create directional and focused light. This study examines the aesthetic and technical shifts that led to the adoption and generalization of these effects. The transformations of the paradigm of vision in the 19th century, analysed in particular by Jonathan Crary, make it possible to understand that the contrasts of light, very popular from the 1800s onwards, particularly in melodramas and romantic dramas, testify to a paradigm shift in theatre: the construction of a view of the stage, through the use of light, is gradually becoming imperative. It is in this context that the pattern of the ray emerges in the romantic imagination, first as a metaphor for vision and drama, then as a staged light effect. From the 1850s, the advent of the first electric and limelight projectors made it possible to multiply the effects of focused light, whose uses were gradually codified. On the one hand, focused light is used as a disciplinary device and imposes itself as a means of controlling specifically the attention paid to the stage, thus contributing to the long movement of pacification of the spectators during the century. But it also allows a sharpened gaze: the projector thus becomes the means of instrumenting the spectator's eye to give him to see what he would not otherwise have noticed: the details, the signs, the clues. Thus the "ray" participates in the implementation of the "conjectural paradigm" in the theatre, which Jean-Pierre Sarrazac described in particular on the basis of Carlo Ginzburg's work. On the other hand, focused light is used to transform bodies through technology, especially those of fantastic creatures and women. It thus becomes an instrument for the production of otherness; it allows the production of bodies conforming to gender categories. From this point of view, the ray makes it possible to start thinking about thelinks between light and matter as early as in the 1850s. Practitioners then experiment with different uses of light: some are based on objectification, as defined by Sandra Lee Bartky in particular; others, particularly the work of Loïe Fuller, invent new ways of staging focused light. The appendix volume of this thesis contains lists of light indications in 19th century staging booklets, including the Palianti collection and the collections of the Association de la Régie théâtrale.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02892306, version 1

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Pauline Noblecourt. La lumière focalisée dans les spectacles parisiens du XIXe siècle. Musique, musicologie et arts de la scène. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE2124⟩. ⟨tel-02892306⟩

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