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Anthropisation en direction des Parcs Nationaux de Taï et de la Comoé (Côte d’Ivoire) : évaluer le risque trypanosomien

Abstract : In Sub-Saharan Africa, population growth and climatic variability generate significant population movements in direction of protected areas. The installation on the periphery or inside the protected areas, exposes the human populations and the animals that they raise to the bite of insect-vectors able to transmitting pathogens (yellow fever, leishmaniasis, trypanosomosis etc.). This is the case of tsetse flies, vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness) and African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT). In Côte d’Ivoire, population increased from 2.6 million (8 people/km2) in 1950 to 23,1 million in 2015 (71,6 people/km2). The process of deforestation for agriculture development (coffee, cocoa, rubber tree and cashew plantations for example) have led to a land saturation, which are oriented agricultural populations towards protected areas. This increasing of anthropic impacts in and around protected areas exposes human and animal populations to tsetse fly bite and trypanosome risk. The objective of this study is to report the process of exploitation of territories situated in margins and inside two protected areas and to evaluate trypanosome risk. More precisely, the first step is to characterize settlement dynamics (creation, extension and multiplication of stands, increase in human population densities) and changes in the rural area (areas cultivated and types of crops) outskirts of the Taï National Park (forest) and the Comoé National Park (savannah). Activities carried out by the surrounding riparian populations and within these protected areas is also studied (gathering, hunting, fishing, grazing, gold panning, etc.). In the same time, in order to assess the risk, entomological surveys (species diversity, density and infection of tsetse flies), medical and veterinary surveys (seroprevalence, prevalence of HAT and AAT) were conducted. This "One Health" approach provides a better understanding of how populations exploit marginal and protected areas and measure trypanosome risk exposure. In view of the demographic projections and future land issues associated, this theme appears essential for the elimination of human and animal trypanosomiasis. This study helps to reach the goal of elimination of THA in Côte d'Ivoire by 2020.
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Pierre Fauret. Anthropisation en direction des Parcs Nationaux de Taï et de la Comoé (Côte d’Ivoire) : évaluer le risque trypanosomien. Géographie. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BOR30025⟩. ⟨tel-02889932⟩

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