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Effets de deux modalités d'entraînement et d'une complémentation à base d'extraits végétaux sur le développement du diabète de type 2 : Physiologie

Abstract : Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents one of the main challenges for the 21 st century. In 2015, 415 million people in the world were diabetic and 318 million more showed signs of prediabetes, a condition defined by a high risk of developing T2D, though still reversible. Lifestyle recommendations (physical activity and diet) form the first line of intervention for T2D prevention. The objective of this thesis was to measure the effects of two lifestyle-based therapeutic strategies on T2D development. Study 1 aimed at comparing the effects of two chronic exercise modalities (moderate-intensity continuous training vs. high-intensity interval training) on the progression of T2D of young db/db mice. Study 2 was focused on assessing the effects of a blend of 5 plants (patented formula Totum-63) on the development of T2D of two murine models of prediabetes: young db/db mice and high-fat diet induced insulin resistance mice. In study 1, high-intensity interval training improved glycaemic control maybe through enhanced muscular Glut4 content despite no adaptation of mitochondrial function. In study 2, Totum-63 supplementation improved glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in both models of prediabetes. Several mechanisms in tissues involved in T2D physiopathology were unveiled, suggesting a pleiotropic action of Totum-63. In conclusion, this work supports the interest of these two lifestyle- based interventions for preventing T2D development. Future prospects include the study of the combined action of chronic exercise and Totum-63.
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Vivien Chavanelle. Effets de deux modalités d'entraînement et d'une complémentation à base d'extraits végétaux sur le développement du diabète de type 2 : Physiologie. Education. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAS021⟩. ⟨tel-02885485⟩

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