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Pollution atmosphérique particulaire : caractérisation physico-chimique et comparaison des effets toxiques des fractions extractible et non-extractible des PM₂.₅

Abstract : Air pollution and particulate matter (PM₂.₅) were classified as carcinigens (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2013. This particulate fraction represents a complex mixture with a highly variable composition influencing the toxicity. However, few studies have determined the respective involvement of the different chemical fractions of PM in their toxic effects. In this work, fine particles (PM₂.₅₋₀.₃) and quasi-ultrafine particles (PM₀.₃) were sampled in an urban site located in Beirut (Lebanon). After performing the physicochemical characterization of these two types of particles, their toxic effects (global cytotoxicity, metabolic activation, genotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis) were investigated on a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). The analysis of the organic content revealed differences between the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as welle as oxygenated (O-PAH) and nitrated (N-PAH) congeners, respectively 43, 17 and 4 times higher in PM₀.₃ than in PM₂.₅₋₀.₃.The toxicological study was based on the comparison of the toxicity of the fine particles considered in their entirety (PM₂.₅₋₀.₃), the extracted organic fraction (OEM₂.₅₋₀.₃) and the fraction not extracted by the dichloromethane (NEM₂.₅₋₀.₃). In addition, the specific effects of the organic fraction extrated from the quasi-ultrafine particles (OEM₀.₃) were compared with those of the organic fraction extracted from the fine particles (OEM₂.₅₋₀.₃). Our results showed that all the studied fractions were able to induce at least one of the studied mechanisms. PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ was able to induce toxic effects greater than those induced by OEM₂.₅₋₀.₃ and NEM₂.₅₋₀.₃. The organic fraction extracted from the quasi-ultrafine particles (OEM₀.₃), richer in organic compounds and in particular in PAHs and other congeners, appeared to be responsible for deleterious effects globally greater than that extracted from the fine particles (OEM₂.₅₋₀.₃). The results of this work have brought new elements on the relative toxicity of the different fractions of the fine particles and underline the crucial role played by ultrafine particles, still too little studied.
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Ghidaa Badran. Pollution atmosphérique particulaire : caractérisation physico-chimique et comparaison des effets toxiques des fractions extractible et non-extractible des PM₂.₅. Toxicologie. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale; Université de Lille (2018-..); Conseil National de la Recherche scientifique (Liban), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019DUNK0547⟩. ⟨tel-02883391⟩

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