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Mécanismes de développement des cellules épendymaires : origine et lignage des cellules épendymaires dans le cerveau des mammifères

Abstract : Ependymal cells are multiciliated cells lining the walls of all brain cavities. Once they are mature, they do not divide during life. Their motile ciliary beating endorses a crucial role in maintaining a proper flow of cerebrospinal fluid throughout all brain cavities. Ependymal cells also ensure critical molecular exchanges of the cerebrospinal fluid. On the whole, the involvement of ependymal cells and their multiple motile cilia in the maintenance of the neural circuits and more globally in the well-functioning of the entire brain have proven paramount. More recently, a new characteristic of ependymal cells has been brought to light. Namely, they are part of a microenvironment so called a “niche” surrounding adult neural stem cells in the adult rodent brain. Noteworthy, these adult neuralstem cells are capable of producing new neurons that will migrate to the olfactory bulb of rodents. In terms of their origin, it was shown that multiciliated ependymal cells derive from neural stem cells during late embryonic stages. Besides, the same stem cells can give rise to most cell types of the brain. However, little is known about how fate-decision is made in neural stem cells. In this project, we tackle more particularly how multiciliated ependymal cells arise from the neural stem cells. Most specifically, we address the type of celldivision and the ependymal cell lineage. We find that ependymal cells are not migrating subsequent to their last division, but rather stay where they were first produced. Most interestingly, they can be generated through both symmetric and asymmetric cell division. We also show that embryonic neural stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to both an ependymal cell and an adult stem cell. We are confident that these data bring major new insights in the current understanding of neural development. Additionally, these findingscould contribute in opening new therapeutic perspectives and strategies to cure neurodegenerative diseases in a much longer term.
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Marie Daclin. Mécanismes de développement des cellules épendymaires : origine et lignage des cellules épendymaires dans le cerveau des mammifères. Neurosciences. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEE015⟩. ⟨tel-02883268⟩

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