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Effet des facteurs environnementaux sur la nature des EPS, la capacité de sorption du cuivre et le potentiel de résilience de biofilms phototrophes simplifiés

Abstract : Phototrophic biofilm, the main benthic signature of fast-flowing rivers, provide an important number of ecosystem services related to self-purification mechanisms (nitrates, pesticides, metal contaminations, etc.). However, their functioning is strongly disturbed by the increasing anthropogenic pressures, particularly by the presence of traces metals (TM) or the sequential interruption of surface flow. In the context of global change, the response of phototrophic communities should be considered for river management, in term of chemical and ecological properties. The aim of this thesis was to understand the physiological responses of benthic phototrophic microorganisms to environmental parameters involved in global change (light, temperature, phosphorus) as well as their response to a multi-stress combining the exposure of biofilms to TM (Cu and Zn, alone or in cocktail) by the prolonged drying of biofilm. Physiological responses of biofilm (biomass, photosynthetic activity and EPS production (extracellular polymeric substances)) were studied to analyze the tolerance and resilience capacities of communities. Three benthic phototrophic species were chosen: the cyanobacteria Phormidium autumnale, the diatom Nitzschia palea and the green algae Uronema confervicolum. Cultures of biofilm in free surface flow microcosms (hydraulic mini-channels) allowed to control all the experimental parameters. The first step was to develop a method for EPS extraction from the biofilm matrix while preserving the cell integrity of phototrophic microorganisms. Subsequently, the study of physiological responses of monospecific phototrophic biofilm exposed to Cu or/and Zn showed different sensitivities of phototrophic species. Then the sorption capacity of Cu by these species depended on environmental parameters, via the modulation of EPS production and composition. Finally, the double-stress characterised by Cu exposition followed by drying biofilm induced also resilience responses when rewetting, modulated by the environmental parameters. Overall, the monospecific phototrophic biofilms studied present different tolerance and resilience capacities by modifying the abundance and composition of EPS produced.
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Emilie Loustau. Effet des facteurs environnementaux sur la nature des EPS, la capacité de sorption du cuivre et le potentiel de résilience de biofilms phototrophes simplifiés. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30148⟩. ⟨tel-02879327⟩

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