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Effets combinés de la pêche et des perturbations naturelles sur la dynamique des écosystèmes coralliens

Abstract : Coral reef provides coastal communities with vital and valuable ecosystem services, such as food and coastal protection, sources of income, and contribute to their societal and cultural identity. However, coral reef ecosystems are subjected to a combination of increasing natural disturbance regimes and increasing multiple human stressors. This may cause irreversible shifts in community structure and, thus, in the delivery of ecosystem services. Understanding the dynamics of these state shifts is fundamental to sustainably manage coral reef social-ecological systems. The overarching goal of this PhD thesis is to better develop system modeling methods to better inform sustainability management. We used two main modeling approaches: Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) and Agent Based Modeling. We used the coral reef social-ecological system of Moorea, French Polynesia, as a case study. Firstly, we collected and integrated various ecological and social data to build three food web models of Moorea, before, during and after a natural disturbance-driven coral mortality. Then, we used an ecosystem network approach to assess recovery pathways of that coral reef ecosystem. We showed that, while benthic communities recovered in a decade after the disturbance, the ecosystem as a whole presented a recovery debt. To investigate how fisheries dynamics interact with this ecosystem dynamic, we developed a dynamic food web model that revisits a natural disturbance regime under different fishing scenarios. We showed that indirect effect of fisheries can maintain intermediate level of fished populations, thus buffering the impact of the disturbance regime on local society. Finally, to better predict local fisheries management initiatives, we developed an agent-based model that accounts for more realist fisheries dynamics. We showed that a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) could in the long-term benefit both marine resources and fisheries production, but under a scenario without disturbance regime. Some of our results give new insights on how both natural disturbances and fisheries activities interact to shape coral reef ecosystems.
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Mélodie Dubois. Effets combinés de la pêche et des perturbations naturelles sur la dynamique des écosystèmes coralliens. Ecosystèmes. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEP021⟩. ⟨tel-02873651⟩

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