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Optimization of compression techniques for still images and video for characterization of materials : mechanical applications

Abstract : This PhD. thesis focuses on the optimization of fixed image and video compression techniques for the characterization of materials in mechanical science applications, and it constitutes a part of MEgABIt (MEchAnic Big Images Technology) research project supported by the Polytechnic University Hauts-de-France (UPHF). The scientific objective of the MEgABIt project is to investigate the ability to compress large volumes of data flows from mechanical instrumentation of deformations with large volumes both in the spatial and frequency domain. We propose to design original processing algorithms for data processing in the compressed domain in order to make possible at the computational level the evaluation of the mechanical parameters, while preserving the maximum of information provided by the acquisitions systems (high-speed imaging, tomography 3D). In order to be relevant image compression should allow the optimal computation of morpho-mechanical parameters without causing the loss of the essential characteristics of the contents of the mechanical surface images, which could lead to wrong analysis or classification. In this thesis, we use the state-of-the-art HEVC standard prior to image analysis, classification or storage processing in order to make the evaluation of the mechanical parameters possible at the computational level. We first quantify the impact of compression of video sequences from a high-speed camera. The experimental results obtained show that compression ratios up to 100: 1 could be applied without significant degradation of the mechanical surface response of the material measured by the VIC-2D analysis tool. Then, we develop an original classification method in the compressed domain of a surface topography database. The topographical image descriptor is obtained from the prediction modes calculated by intra-image prediction applied during the lossless HEVC compression of the images. The Support vector machine (SVM) is also introduced for strengthening the performance of the proposed system. Experimental results show that the compressed-domain topographies classifier is robust for classifying the six different mechanical topographies either based on single or multi-scale analyzing methodologies. The achieved lossless compression ratios up to 6:1 depend on image complexity. We evaluate the effects of surface filtering types (high-pass, low-pass, and band-pass filter) and the scale of analysis on the efficiency of the proposed compressed-domain classifier. We verify that the high analysis scale of high-frequency components of the surface profile is more appropriate for classifying our surface topographies with accuracy of 96 %.
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Tarek Saad Omar Eseholi. Optimization of compression techniques for still images and video for characterization of materials : mechanical applications. Signal and Image processing. Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018VALE0047⟩. ⟨tel-02872875⟩

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