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La transition agroécologique à l'épreuve des acteurs : de l'analyse des pratiques des agriculteurs à l'aide à la réflexion pour les décideurs politiques. Cas de la production fruitière à La Réunion.

Abstract : Through their purchase choices and political representatives, consumers are putting an increasing pressure on fruit growers to reduce the negative environmental and sanitary impacts of their agricultural practices. Agroecological practices enhancing natural processes can help reducing synthetic inputs use. However, proceeding to an agroecological transition is a complex management challenge for farmers who often combine diverse activities. Moreover, policy support for agroecological transitions remains to be improved. In this context, our study focused on agroecological transition processes in diversified citrus farms in La Réunion Island in order to understand the diversity of their dynamics and improve their support through public incentives.The first step of the study aimed at describing and explaining the diversity of agroecological transitions on 31 diversified farms. A farm typology sorting this diversity was built in order to be communicated to policy makers. The second step used this diagnosis to design an ex-ante evaluation tool of public policies linked to fluctuating market at the productive system scale. The tool, named ENTICIP (Territorial Evaluation of Interactions between Consumption, Public grants and agricultural Production), is a bioeconomic optimization model combining farm and productive system scales. ENTICIP can run exploratory scenarios of policies supporting agroecological transition under various market conditions. It estimates farmers’ choices and economic, environmental and social consequences at the productive system scale. Agroecological practices adoption depended on numerous internal and external factors at farm scale, the most significant being the marketing channel, the farmer eco-friendliness and the economic role of the production for the farm. Beneficial interactions for agroecology occurred within diversified farms, such as synergetic exchanges of biomass and knowledge, or alternative input and equipment sharing. Some cases of radical trajectories leading rapidly to a strong ecologization level were identified, but most of the trajectories were really progressive, eventually with back steps. The ecologization speeds differed depending on productions in diversified farms. This process helped minimizing risks induced while adopting agroecological practices.Based on this knowledge ENTICIP was used on the cases of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) and tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) productive systems in La Réunion. Conditions for a massive development of organic farming were explored in scenarios with increased organic farming subsidies and favorable organic market context. Subsidies rates to trigger organic conversion are variable regarding the kind of production and the farm type, according to their bioclimatic conditions and their marketing channels. Moving to organic production required the highest amounts of subsidies when high prices for conventional products were available, such as in export markets. Local policy makers were presented these scenarios and involved in a participatory process to use the model and evaluate the results of scenarios.The research process enabled to gather knowledge on productive systems functioning, and to suggest orientations to improve agricultural policies with an environmental perspective. Prospects could be to strengthen the partnership between policy makers and scientists in La Réunion, to provide local stakeholders with tools to manage the agroecological transition in their territory. Research efforts could target the development of a multi-scale and interdisciplinary program on the issue of farmers’ changes.
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Marie Dupre. La transition agroécologique à l'épreuve des acteurs : de l'analyse des pratiques des agriculteurs à l'aide à la réflexion pour les décideurs politiques. Cas de la production fruitière à La Réunion.. Sciences agricoles. Montpellier SupAgro, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NSAM0033⟩. ⟨tel-02871774⟩

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