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Étude portant sur la construction de la méthode en escalade de bloc chez des grimpeurs experts et de son étayage par l’introduction d’un artefact au sein d’un dispositif de formation

Abstract : For climbers, the abilities to quickly sight-read a problem and quickly determine the sequence of actions that enable you to solve this problem are crucial. These abilities constitute the main subjects of training and coaching courses. This thesis intends to study the activity of expert climbers’ beta exploration in bouldering, and offer intervention methods meant to develop these exploration abilities. This study is part of an anthropocultural research program (Bertone, 2011, Chaliès, 2012), originally focused on the construction of professionals in training courses. This theoretical framework is based on Wittgenstein’s analytic philosophy (2004). Two protocols were led. The first one involves modelling the climbing beta construction activity of expert climbers facing an unknown natural boulder problem in outside climbing conditions. The second dispositive was designed from the epistemic advances of the first one. Macroscopic measures of an expert climber cinematic were backed by a coach-researcher in order to elaborate a collaborative work between the two actors. The goals were 1) to support the athlete exploration activity, commonly known as route reading, and 2) to support the observation activity of a coach-researcher. The main results show that climbers perform two types of explorations. The first one is mainly macroscopic and enables to identify a global framework of the beta. The second one is mainly microscopic and corresponds to the identifications of acute sensations felt during the ascent. For the climber and the observer this exploration is both complex to identify and describe, and also the central part of the beta elaboration. The actors notify specific feeling perceptions relatives to their past experiences, which are interpreted in-situ. Multilemma characterise the global dynamic of the explorations. During them choices alternate and/or imbricate with each other requiring a permanent exploration-interpretation and this at any stage of the beta advancement. The results of the second protocol show that the support of the climber activity enables him to sample, at a fine grain level, fecund and counter-intuitive betas at the cost of a non-negligible perturbation of his exploration. More specifically, scaffolding using a biomechanical tool meant to provide a macroscopic description of the climber’s fluidity (the JERK) allowed the athlete and the researcher-trainer to carry out collaborative and investigative work. This work resulted in new focuses and discrimination within the climber’s activity but also in a, usually neglected, new microscopic exploration method.
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François Baux. Étude portant sur la construction de la méthode en escalade de bloc chez des grimpeurs experts et de son étayage par l’introduction d’un artefact au sein d’un dispositif de formation. Education. Université de la Réunion, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LARE0035⟩. ⟨tel-02870951⟩

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