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Restauration écologique des prairies alluviales par transfert de matériel biologique : importance des premières étapes sur les trajectoires des communautés végétales.

Abstract : Floodplains house an original and diversified fauna and flora thanks to their spatio-temporal heterogeneity and provide many services to human beings (ecosystem services).However, these ecosystems are subject to various types of threats, such as urbanization or intensification of agricultural activities. These ecosystems are also subject to changes in the processes of species dispersal and proliferation of invasive species influencing their plant communities. In a context of global and national wetland regression, their conservation and restoration is a challenge.The ecological restoration is a discipline based on theories and concepts of fundamental ecology. The ecological restoration is in return a way of testing the concepts of fundamental ecology. Among the processes taking place in the assembly of the community, ecological filters play a key role. Their understanding is necessary to achieve the goals of restoration.On the basis of the approaches of assemblages of plant communities, we identified the processes involved in the first phases of ecological restoration of alluvial floodplains. We learned more about the preparation of initial conditions through tillage, the effects of different types of biological inputs, more and more complete, and the role of the management on trajectories of plant communities during the first years of ecological restoration.First, our results underlined the positive effects of the preparation of the initial soil conditions. It favored the installation of the target plant species. However, this preparation does not need a heavy intervention, such as deep tillage. Interventions, such as mowing and harrowing, aresufficient to enable the recruitment and installation of target species. Our results showed that the transfer of biological material, from seed sowing to soil transfer, enabled to limit the dispersal and availability of wet grassland species, as described in the literature. Finally, our observations highlighted the management effects on plant community trajectories during the first restoration phases. Thus, the maintenance of the mechanical disturbance enables to reinforce the dynamics of the communities towards those of the reference.The different actors of the society (policy manager, stakeholders) are more and more involved in the implementation of restoration programs and this thesis brings concrete elements for the restoration of alluvial floodplains.
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Myriam Garrouj. Restauration écologique des prairies alluviales par transfert de matériel biologique : importance des premières étapes sur les trajectoires des communautés végétales.. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0345⟩. ⟨tel-02869587⟩

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