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Le contrôle moteur et oculomoteur dans la schizophrénie : l’attention et la modulation de l’excitabilité corticale : principaux contributeurs du déficit sensorimoteur ?

Abstract : Sensorimotor, attention and working memory impairments have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, even at an early stage of its evolution. The presence and severity of these deficits may, from the prodromal stage, predict the course of the disease. However, the interaction between cognitive and sensorimotor impairments and their related neural correlates remain uncharted. In this study, we wanted to assess whether attentional and working memory processing contribute to sensorimotor impairment in a visuomotor grip force tracking task in 25 stabilized patients with schizophrenia, 17 unaffected healthy siblings and 25 healthy age and gender-matched controls. Subjects performed a visuomotor grip force tracking task with increasing cognitive load: (i) simple tracking, (ii) tracking with visual distractors (requiring inhibition of saccades), and (iii) tracking with addition of numbers (requiring saccades). During the visuomotor tracking task, gaze was simultaneously recorded and cortical excitability and inhibition were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. The behavioral and physiological results, obtained in this thesis, pinpoint altered attentional processing (divided attention and filtering of irrelevant information) and an imbalance of cortical excitability and inhibition as key contributors to sensorimotor impairments in schizophrenia. Moreover, altered task-related modulation of cortical excitability and inhibition in siblings is consistent with a genetic risk for cortical abnormality.
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Loic Carment. Le contrôle moteur et oculomoteur dans la schizophrénie : l’attention et la modulation de l’excitabilité corticale : principaux contributeurs du déficit sensorimoteur ?. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Sorbonne Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS265⟩. ⟨tel-02868509⟩

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