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Contrôle des corps et autonomie des lycéens : gymnastique, éducation physique et sport au lycée de Besançon (1850-1935)

Abstract : Physical activities were introduced into the high school curriculum in the 19th century by physicians and the military. Institutional historians show how physical activities were included in the course called Physical Education and how they evolved. Surprisingly, however, historians who have studied this material never mention the body, which is at the center of this discipline. Michel de Certeau wrote, “Each society has its own body, just as it has its own language made up of a more or less refined system of choice from among countless phonetic, lexical and syntactic possibilities". This thesis studies the reasons that led the French Ministry of Public Education to include Physical Education in students’ scheduling; it uses the case of a high school in Besançon, France. (The students of all high schools during the period studied came from bourgeois families.) Thesis research focuses on the representations of the body, the expectations of the families of the students and the expectations of the politicians who introduced physical education into schools. Research tools developed by Michel Foucault were adapted for studying power over the body. Alain Ehrenberg’s concept of autonomy was used to understand how knowledge is acquired (pedagogy). Research results are presented for three periods: from 1850 to 1890 when autonomy was non-existent in physical education; from 1890 to World War I, when sport was introduced into high schools but physical education policies were just as strict; and from 1918 to 1935 when toleration of autonomy was obligatory but the institution could take back control when it was deemed necessary.
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Jean-Jacques Dupaux. Contrôle des corps et autonomie des lycéens : gymnastique, éducation physique et sport au lycée de Besançon (1850-1935). Education. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCC007⟩. ⟨tel-02866990⟩

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