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Rôle des monocytes dans la régulation de la réponse inflammatoire au cours du sepsis

Abstract : Sepsis is a common and life-threatening pathology. It is defined as an organic dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. An initial hyper-inflammatory phase follows recognition of the pathogen and is progressively replaced by long-term immunosuppression leading to prolonged sensitivity to superinfections. Monocytes (Mo) are one of the first lines of phagocytic cells in the lung. Understanding how these cells participate in pulmonary supervision during sepsis would allow the development or improvement of treatments for enhancing resistance to secondary nosocomial infections. We showed that monocytes are strongly involved in the control of inflammation during the early and late phases of murine polymicrobial sepsis. Indeed, during the acute phase of sepsis, inflammatory monocyte mobilization participates to the monitoring of renal tissues and has a protective effect via a CX3CR1-dependent adhesion mechanism. The second phase of sepsis is most often described as “immunosuppressive”. We demonstrated a systemic accumulation of myeloid cells during this last phase. Characterization of their localization showed that these cells accumulated specifically in the vascular network of the organs without infiltrating the tissues. Ly6Chigh monocytes and their chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 have been identified as essential for pulmonary supervision during first and second infection. However, the ability of these cells to stimulate and regulate immune responses appears to be impaired. Thus, the activation state of inflammatory Mo would not protect against a second pulmonary infections post sepsis.
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Camille Baudesson de Chanville. Rôle des monocytes dans la régulation de la réponse inflammatoire au cours du sepsis. Immunologie. Sorbonne Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS376⟩. ⟨tel-02866067⟩

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