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Etude de deux modalités de phytomanagement testées sur un terrain de gestion de sédiments contaminés par des métaux et métalloïdes

Abstract : Phytomanagement is an emerging approach that includes plant biomass valorization for the management of polluted soils and sites. To evaluate the long-term performance of this strategy at field scale, two phytomanaged sites of 1 ha each (sites A and B) were implanted in Fresnes-sur-Escaut (Hauts-de-France) in 2011/2012 at a dredged-sediment disposal site contaminated with potentially toxic elements or PTE (Cd, Cu, Pb et Zn). The thesis work is based on the study of the two sites with the following objectives: (1) study the dynamics of selected plants (Deschampsia cespitosa, Skado and I-214 poplars, Tordis and Inger willows), colonizing plants and invaders, (2) study the efficiency of amendments (mycorrhizal fungi inoculum, basic mineral amendment) on sediment PTE mobility, on aerial plant parts PTE accumulation and on the microbial diversity in soils and tree roots.The efficiency of the grass D. cespitosa for phytomanagement at the site B has been highlighted. The plant was tolerant to the site conditions, had low concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb in shoots and formed a dense and perennial plant cover. At the site A, the herbaceous plant cover formed by plant colonists was heterogenous with a dominance of the species Urtica dioïca.In amended and non-amended plots, U. dioïca showed higher concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn than the same plants from uncontaminated soils. According to risk calculations based on Cd and Zn concentrations, there was no risk related to the ingestion of these herbaceous plants by herbivorous animals. Concerning poplars and willows dedicated to energy production, high Cd and Zn concentrations were found in their leaves regardless of the amendments. These leaves may pose a risk for herbivorous animals. Unlike poplars which were very tolerant to the site conditions, willows showed a reduction of growth and survival rate in the amended and non-amended plots sown with D. cespitosa, because of belowground competition with D. cespitosa. Ecotoxicological tests revealed that soil phytotoxicity was also responsible of the willow growth reduction. Besides, the biological and chemical amendments had no significant effect on PTE mobility and speciation in soils after 4 or 5 years of phytomanagement. Their effects on PTE transfers in plants varied depending on the species, levels of pollution and time. The study of microbial communities in tree roots revealed that the herbaceous cover and soil pollution had a significant impact on microbial composition whereas the amendments did not affect the microbial communities.
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Phonethip Phanthavongsa. Etude de deux modalités de phytomanagement testées sur un terrain de gestion de sédiments contaminés par des métaux et métalloïdes. Sciences agricoles. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCD055⟩. ⟨tel-02862733⟩

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