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Dynamiques identitaires liées aux comparaisons sociales intergroupes et intragroupes : quand l'auto-catégorisation explique les perceptions et conduites scolaires

Abstract : Based on the Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954), the Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1970) and the Self-Categorization Theory (Turner, 1987), this Thesis presents the influence of social comparison context on academic perceptions and behaviors. Particularly, the level of self-categorization (intergroup v. intragroup) affects academic selfconcept (scientific v. arts), self-reported marks but also career choices, according to gender (Article 1). Women evaluate themselves as more gifted in French than men and men evaluate themselves as more gifted in science than women in an intergroup context compared to an intragroup context. With more “objective” measures, these results are similar for marks and even become inverted for academic choices. These gender differences are conspicuous for an agentic and a relational self in a group context, and fade too in a more individual context (Article 2). Thus, for French students, gender differences do not decrease (Eagly & Wood, 1999), but persist when a collective identity is induced. Self-stereotyping, or adherence to an ingroup stereotype, explains these gender differences on agentic and relational self-concepts. Furthermore, in this study which was conducted in an engineering school, social position change the scientific self-perceptions of women in a collective context, highlighting contrast effect related to group membership. The collective self but not the individual self guides attitudes toward social inequalities, with certain measures of social dominance and of modern sexism (Article 2). The links between social comparison and achievement goals are then studied and suggest that an intergroup comparison involves the adoption of performance-approach goals more than an intragroup context while the opposite effect occurs for mastery goals (Article 3). These results will finally be discussed according to questions surrounding the existence of real gender differences tied to context and multiple identities influencing differently cognitions and attitudes.
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Sébastien Chazal. Dynamiques identitaires liées aux comparaisons sociales intergroupes et intragroupes : quand l'auto-catégorisation explique les perceptions et conduites scolaires. Psychologie. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015CLF20029⟩. ⟨tel-02862484⟩

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