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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Acts as a Risk Factor for the Development of Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

Abstract : Following aging, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the most important risk factor of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance that develops in middle age and is promoted largely by obesity. In this study, we used a T2DM rat model to assess the potential impact T2DM may have on the development of AD. Rats were fed cafeteria-style diet (CD) coupled with low dose injections of Streptozotocin (STZ)(STZ-CD). We found that STZ-CD treated rats showed classic signs of T2DM and a modest deficit in consolidation of spatial recognition memory. In order to mimic the development of early stage AD, half of the rats were infused with a soluble oligomeric amyloid beta (Aβ), which alone was not sufficient to induce long-lasting memory deficits. Interestingly, the T2DM phenotype exacerbated the memory deficits induced by Aβ infusion by prolonging these deficits. Environmental enrichment during a critical two-week period following infusion of Aβ rescued memory deficits induced by Aβ and/or STZ-CD treatment; however, this was time-limited. Biochemical analyses were conducted mainly in proteins involved in the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway and markers of AD and T2DM in CA1 of the hippocampus. Aβ alone induced few long-lasting changes; T2DM phenotype alone induced some changes that were largely mediated by CD treatment alone; however, the majority of dysfunctional regulation of proteins was observed in rats showing a T2DM phenotype that were infused with Aβ. More importantly, many of these changes are similar to those reported in brains of AD patients or rodent models of the disease; notably key proteins in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway that mediate functions such as autophagy, inflammation and markers of AD. Dysregulation of these proteins may contribute to the long-lasting memory deficits seen in this model, which may provide evidence of molecular mechanisms induced by T2DM that could promote a dysfunctional neuronal environment favouring the development of early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.
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Men Su. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Acts as a Risk Factor for the Development of Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease. Molecular biology. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS121⟩. ⟨tel-02826760⟩

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