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Préservation de l'arôme dans un jambon cuit non nitrité

Abstract : Sodium nitrite is an essential ingredient in the cooked ham production process, yet its use is under challenge due to food safety concerns. Sodium nitrite is a multifunctional additive used for its ability to act on several fronts—from inhibiting oxidation and preventing microbial growth to giving desirable colour and aroma. This study focused on the aroma function under a wider objective to reduce nitrite use in cooked ham processing. Using several complementary methods with gas chromatography–olfactometry, we first identified 2- methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide as the odour- active sulphur-compounds responsible for cooked ham flavour. It emerged that in the absence of nitrite—and therefore the absence of inhibited oxidation—the massive formation of an array of odour-active compounds produced by oxidative breakdown tended to disrupt the overall aroma of the final cooked ham. Next, in an effort to restore this aroma in the absence of nitrite, the study was organized into two strands, where the first strand aimed to promote the production of key aroma-active sulphur-compounds while the second strand aimed to minimize the formation of aroma-disruptive oxidation compounds by using natural antioxidants. This research was led on model cooked mini-hams. We identified thiamine as the major precursor of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide under cooked ham production conditions, and we selected acerola, cranberry, onion and tea extracts as natural antioxidants. The coupled evaluations of oxidation and aroma showed that the formulated mixture of these four extracts not only equalled the antioxidant performances of added sodium nitrite but also lifted the “cooked ham” head note compared to the reference no-added-nitrite formulation. The association of thiamine and vegetal extracts ultimately made it possible to produce no-added-nitrite hams that, in terms of aroma and oxidation levels, proved almost identical to nitrite-added ham. The engineered formulations thus offer a good research track to suppress the sodium nitrite in cooked ham. The problem of how to restore the distinctive pink colour of cooked ham is an issue that remains to be resolved, and the ability of these new formulations to inhibit microbial growth needs to be validated.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02800482, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 307117

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Caroline Thomas. Préservation de l'arôme dans un jambon cuit non nitrité. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22522⟩. ⟨tel-02800482⟩

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