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Les rayonnements UV-C : un moyen de lutte pour stimuler les défenses du fraisier et de la tomate en cours de culture et améliorer la qualité / conservation des fruits après récolte

Abstract : Some fungi are very damaging during plant cultivation and also in post-harvest storage of products. Regulatory restrictions on fungicide use require alternative solutions. Improving plant resistance using physical methods, such as aplication of UV radiation, can be a promising alternative in association with other methods as part of an integrated pest management strategy. The objective of the present thesis was to study the effect of UV-C aplication on the sensitivity of plants to fungal pathogens. UV-C radiation was applied during plant cultivation, alone or in combination with biocontrol agents, or in post-harvest. Experiments were conducted on two plant species: strawberry and tomato.On strawberry plants, UV-C treatments at 1.70 kJ/m² result in a systematic 20 % decrease in leaves sensitivity to Botrytis cinerea and in a reduction by up to 50 % of the number of leaves infected by Podosphaera aphanis, the causal agent of powdery mildew. In tomato, leaves protection against B. cinerea reaches 43 % with a cumulative dose of 4.0 kJ/m². UV-C treatments applied on fruits reduce the strawberry sensitivity to Rhizopus by 75 % but no effect is observed against B. cinerea. On the contrary, sensitivity against B. cinerea is reduced by 63 % on tomato fruit. Biochemical and taste tests suggest that fruit quality is not significantly improved or altered by UV-C treatment. Despite a marked germicidal effect of UV-C radiation on strawberry leaves, it has no significant effect on the protective efficacy of biocontrol agents.Our observations are encouraging to consider the use of this tool in an integrated crop protection scheme. However, a clear understanding of how UV-C radiations are perceived by plants and their translation into defense mechanisms is necessary before their use is recommended in the field.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02791693, version 2

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Marine Forges. Les rayonnements UV-C : un moyen de lutte pour stimuler les défenses du fraisier et de la tomate en cours de culture et améliorer la qualité / conservation des fruits après récolte. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse (UAPV), Avignon, FRA., 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0700⟩. ⟨tel-02791693v2⟩

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