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Développement de méthodes et d’outils associant la modélisation numérique et des mesures in situ afin de concilier la qualité de l’air intérieur et l’efficacité énergétique

Abstract : Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) knowledge is necessary to address the sanitary and socio-economic issues of this field, in both public and private domains. Laboratory-grade measuring devices are generally burdensome and expensive. Alone, they cannot provide a full response to large-scale IAQ information needs. This work focuses on the use of two alternative methods in this context, which are IAQ modeling and the use of low-cost sensors, with the purpose of removing certain barriers to their deployment. As a first step, this manuscript describes the numerical developments made in order to enrich a library of models for nodal modeling of IAQ, initiated by EDF R&D. The main additions include the modeling of humidity and indoor particle deposition. In order to evaluate the relevance of the choices made, a validation work has been carried out by confronting the IAQ library results with analytical solutions, experimental data and other modeling tools. One of the major issues of this type of modeling method is the complex choice of input data. This step can have a significant impact on the results provided and there is a need to assess their influence. The modeling of various mono-zone or multi-zone case studies, from the residential and tertiary sectors, has highlighted the advantages and the limitations of the developed tool regarding the quality of the predictions of the concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the key parameters responsible for model uncertainty in a few configurations. As a second step, an innovative method of particulate matter measurement has been developed, associating several low-cost particle sensors. This approach allowed to tackle the issues of reliability of this kind of sensors and the limitations of their detection capabilities. The design of prototypes and their use in different indoor environments have given promising results. Several developments are then proposed in order to generalize and validate the robustness of this approach.
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Charles-Florian Picard. Développement de méthodes et d’outils associant la modélisation numérique et des mesures in situ afin de concilier la qualité de l’air intérieur et l’efficacité énergétique. Génie civil. Université de La Rochelle, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LAROS014⟩. ⟨tel-02781482⟩

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