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Collaborative multimedia sensors for a connected and smart city

Abstract : Due to their high application potential in various innovative fields (telemonitoring, telemedicine, etc.), Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) arouse the interest of numerous research projects. In addition to inherent constraints of scalar sensor networks in terms of energy limitation, deployment, coverage, reliability, ..., WMSNs impose new constraints related to the captured data. Indeed, multimedia data are very voluminous in comparison to scalar data and, in addition, have a time constraint (real-time delivery). Moreover, their semantic content, very rich, is subject to different perceptions and interpretations depending on the quality of the acquisition. As a target application, this dissertation focuses detecting available car parking spaces within a large city or a metropolis. Nevertheless, the proposed approaches can be used for a wide variety of WMSN applications for surveillance purposes.In this context, the main objective remains the network lifetime maximization while ensuring an acceptable perceived quality at the destination station. The studied approaches are of a distributed nature for scalability reasons, required in WMSN. Two main axes have been targeted: data processing at source nodes and data routing toward the destination.In the data processing axis, the main problem lies in the quality of the data to be transmitted. In general, the higher the quality is, the larger the data are, and consequently more important is the energy consumption and vice versa. It is therefore a question of finding a balance that preserve the energy resources; i.e. maximize the network lifetime while ensuring an acceptable quality of the sent data. The latter is the result of an encoding process at the source level.Thus, we proposed a fully distributed algorithm that maximizes the network lifetime by optimally balancing the encoding power and the source rate at the source node in order to meet a desired visual quality at the destination station. In opposition to existing approaches, our algorithm, of distributed nature, is ensured to find such a trade-off whatever the initial network configuration is.As a second step, we focuses on data routing. In fact, due to the complexity of this problem, especially in a decentralized context, literature works have not considered jointly data processing and routing. In other words, routing was considered as a network input.In the research work of this thesis, we have subsequently shown that the routing directly impacts the results of the network lifetime maximization process. Indeed, we have analyzed the behavior of several routing protocols in WMSN and the obtained results highlighted this influence. We have therefore proposed an analytic model integrating simultaneously the encoding of data at the source nodes and their routing to the base station. We have developed a semi-distributed resolution of this problem. The results obtained were very encouraging.Thus, in the second part, a fully distributed solution was proposed, in which, the routing axis cannot be achieved without the parameters, that should be determined and updated by the data processing axis. On the other hand, the data processing axis cannot be achieved without the routing tables updated by the routing axis. The proposed solution allows: a) an end-to-end routing with local decisions at each video sensor node and b) the choose of the sufficient number of paths needed to ensure a reliable data transmission.For the rest, we have completed our work by considering more realistic constraints, in particular the dynamic reliability of the links as well as the variation of their capacities (according to the remaining energy of the intermediate nodes). The simulation results showed savings of around 25% of the total energy.
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Nesrine Khernane. Collaborative multimedia sensors for a connected and smart city. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCD027⟩. ⟨tel-02736517⟩

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