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Microstructure et procédés techniques des porcelaines qinghua : une approche de type science des matériaux

Abstract : Blue-and-white porcelain, or qinghua porcelain, is one of the most famous types of ceramics in the world. Produced since the 13th century in Jingdezhen kilns (Jiangxi Province), it is defined by the use of an underglazed decoration based on transition elements (mainly cobalt but also iron or manganese). This type of porcelain presents a layered structure easily divided in different systems (glaze, pigment zone, body, body-glaze interface in white zones). Our thesis is dedicated to the microstructural study of the different systems and sub-systems by a "reverse-engineering" approach to uncover the manufacturing process. To do so, we studied 33 samples from the Yuan (1279-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Middle Qing (1736-1850) Dynasties, produced in Jingdezhen, using a multi-analytical approach. This study highlighted the uniformity in chemical composition and firing conditions of the body implying the standardisation of the manufacturing process. Glaze chemical compositions are also rather homogeneous except from some glazes richer in calcium, which could allow the use of a lower firing temperature. The main technological evolutions concern the underglazed blue pigment. The chemical composition confirmed two geological origins: a Fe-rich cobalt probably from Persia used during the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), and a local Mn-rich and Ni-rich cobalt used since the Middle Ming Dynasty (1279-1368). We also observed the development of a synthesis pigment, cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4), during the Middle Ming Dynasty (1436-1572). It was probably synthesised from the high temperature reaction of cobalt ore with an alumino-siliceous clay. The cobalt pigment is then mixed with Ca-rich phases leading to the growth of anorthite crystals (CaAl2Si2O8) around the pigment grains during firing. The bright blue colour is obtained with the presence of large Co-rich pigment grains surrounded by a thick anorthite layer. Finally, the microstructure study allows us to identify "deviant" microstructure on wares which could be modern copies.
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Ariane Pinto. Microstructure et procédés techniques des porcelaines qinghua : une approche de type science des matériaux. Matériaux. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30183⟩. ⟨tel-02736090⟩

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