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Comment concilier le développement des systèmes d'élevage porcin et l'amélioration de la qualité des produits animaux : modélisation multi-agents appliquée au secteur de l'élevage porcin à Madagascar pour la conception et l'évaluation de scénarii de lutte contre la cysticercose

Abstract : Porcine cysticercosis, a neglected tropical parasitic disease due to Taenia solium, with a cycle involving humans and pigs, is responsible for 50,000 deaths each year, mainly in the developing countries. Our PhD work has tried to explore the epidemiological situation of this disease in the swine population of Madagascar and to understand the determinants explaining its prevalence in the epidemiological and economic context of the country. As a first step, abattoir surveys estimated an apparent prevalence of 4.6% [4.2-5.0%] at the national level and a corrected prevalence of 21.03% [19.18-22.87%] taking into account the sensitivity of the method (veterinary inspection by macroscopic observation). In a second step, we modeled the environment-animal-human link in the context of Malagasy highlands where pig farming is semi-intensified but porcine cysticercosis remains endemic. Our multi-agent model, developed under Cormas, allowed us to model the simplified behaviors of human and animal actors as well as health and environmental processes. A multivariate sensitivity analysis helped us better understand the model's responses to the input parameters used. It was sensitive primarily to parameters describing (i) the exposure of animals to food contaminated with T. solium eggs, including the distribution of non-farmer-controlled feed and access to contaminated environment, and (ii) the infectious capacity of T. solium eggs, their excretion and survival in the environment. This exploratory approach allowed us to identify the important parameters, highlighting the research needs to be carried out to reinforce the likelihood of the model results and help us to test the impact of the control scenarios against cysticercosis in pig production areas characteristic of the country's situation.
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Vincent Porphyre. Comment concilier le développement des systèmes d'élevage porcin et l'amélioration de la qualité des produits animaux : modélisation multi-agents appliquée au secteur de l'élevage porcin à Madagascar pour la conception et l'évaluation de scénarii de lutte contre la cysticercose. Toxicologie et chaîne alimentaire. Université de la Réunion, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LARE0025⟩. ⟨tel-02733191⟩

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