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Étude des motivations, des cognitions et des émotions chez les joueurs de jeu de hasard et d'argent

Abstract : Introduction: If gambling is a leisure activity, controlled and perceived as a source of entertainment for the majority of gamblers, for some others this behavior can become problematic. Currently, gambling motives, cognitive distortions, emotion regulation and emotional disorders (anxiety and depression) are mostly involved in the development and maintenance of gambling severity. However, the literature emphasizes the importance of distinguishing gamblers according to the type of game played (skill game and/or games of luck). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the nature of the links between these different variables and their implications in gambling severity, both in skill and non-exclusively skill gamblers. Method: A total of 303 gamblers (229 skill gamblers and 62 mixed gamblers who practice both skill games and games of luck) were recruited and assessed for sociodemographic characteristics and gambling habits data, for gambling severity, gambling motives, cognitive distortions, emotional regulation strategies and negative emotional states (anxiety and depression). All participants were at least 18 years-old, fluent speaking French, and had a regular gambling activity (i.e. once per weak). Due to the small sub-sample of women (n=12), only male gamblers results are summarized. Results: Only male results are presented (N=291). The prevalence of at-risk and pathological gambling was respectively 17.5% and 16.2% in this sample. Although mixed players have significantly higher coping motives, illusion of control, anxiety and depression scores than skill gamblers, these differences are due to the greater severity of mixed players and not to the type of game practiced. Indeed, no difference is observed when skill and mixed gamblers are compared according to the gambling severity. However, gambling motives (coping, financial and enhancement), cognitive distortions (gambling expectancies, illusion of control, predictive control and inability to stop gambling) and anxiety and depressive symptoms increase with gambling severity in the total sample. A similar use of expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal (emotion regulation strategies) appears between gamblers whatever the gambling severity (no significant differences). Although the gambling severity is mainly and positively linked to coping and financial motives, inability to stop gambling, and anxio-depressive symptomatology, the strength of these correlations is higher among mixed gamblers. In addition, gambling motives (coping and financial) are strongly involved in the development of cognitive distortions, which in turn are strongly involved in the development of gambling severity, and that in both skill and mixed gamblers. However, anxio-depressive symptomatology seems to play a greater role in mixed gamblers since it explains two to three times more gambling severity, coping motivation and (feeling of) the inability to stop gambling than in skill gamblers. Conclusion: Results indicate that mixed gamblers presented an emotional vulnerability that skill gamblers do not seem to express. Anxiety and depression closely linked with coping motives have probably conducted mixed gamblers to develop problem gambling due to their negative emotional states and the need to escape them. The type of game played should be taken into consideration in clinical interventions, especially because gamblers seem to present different profiles according to whether they practice exclusively skill games or have a mixed game practice. A systematic assessment of the type of game practiced, then gambling motives, cognitive distortions and emotional states could help health professionals to identify the most suitable clinical interventions for each patients.
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Sasha Mathieu. Étude des motivations, des cognitions et des émotions chez les joueurs de jeu de hasard et d'argent. Psychologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB184⟩. ⟨tel-02724634v2⟩

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