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Eco-épidémiologie du virus influenza D : évaluation du spectre d'hôtes et du risque d'émergence

Abstract : Recently, a novel genus was identified within the Orthomyxoviridae family and named thereafter Influenza D virus (IDV). So far, IDV has been detected on differents continents and differents species are susceptible to the virus. Bovine are considered as a main host for IDV. The PhD was divided in two parts: (i) assessment of the host ranges and the geographical circulation of IDV, and (ii) development of a murine model in order to study the pathogenesis of IDV. First, the host range and geographical circulation of IDV were analyzed using serological and/or virological tools, on domestic species from France, Luxembourg and Africa; but also in wild fauna species from differents countries. We observed that IDV circulates mainly in bovine, but other species, such as swine or small ruminants, seem susceptible to the virus too. Virological and phylogenic analyses demonstrated that IDV strains circulating in France are genetically close to European viral strains. Moreover, it appears that camelids, cervids and marsupials could be new hosts for the virus. Finally, we developed a murine model in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the virus. The results suggest that IDV presents a low pathogenesis in mice compared to what was observed in the calf model, although similarities have been observed. In conclusion, IDV circulates throughout the world and seems to have a wide host range, which includes species from the wild fauna. Moreover, the murine model allowed us to better understand of IDV's pathogenesis, especially its replication (fitness, tropism) and associated immune response.
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Justine Oliva. Eco-épidémiologie du virus influenza D : évaluation du spectre d'hôtes et du risque d'émergence. Virologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU30171⟩. ⟨tel-02651515⟩

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