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Paléoimagerie appliquée aux Homo sapiens de Qafzeh (Paléolithique moyen, Levant sud). Variabilité normale et pathologique

Abstract : In the Levant, the Middle Paleolithic (about 200-50 Ka B.P.) corresponds to a period of time that is crucial for understanding evolutionary mechanisms and the spread of Homo sapiens out of Africa. The Qafzeh site (Lower Galilee) located at the crossroads of the three major geographical areas of the Old World is rich of archaeological deposits dated to the middle of this time period (92 ± 5 ka BP). The site is exceptional both for its important anthropological documentation of all age groups (from perinatal to adults) and for unique funeral practices (double burial, funeral repository). While many studies have already been published on the human remains, recent technological advances in Paleoimaging permit new investigation and data improvement. Using 2D (radiographs, CT sections) and 3D (virtual reconstructions from photogrammetric data or [micro]CT-scan) tools, two types of analyses are conducted on the skull and mandible of three individuals (Qafzeh 6, 9 and 25): a morphometric study of internal structures (i.e. bony labyrinth) and a palaeopathological investigation. Examination of the inner ear of these Mousterian individuals brings evidence of an unexpected diversity within the overall Qafzeh sample; furthermore, among hominins of the comparative sample, similarities between few individuals classically considered as archaic and modern specimens are recognized. Bone and dental growth disorders are described on Qafzeh 9 that are consistent with developmental abnormalities previously identified on immature individuals from this site. The data collected illustrate the normal and pathological variability documented by the nomadic hunter-gatherers from Qafzeh, and in addition, to compare them with local and Eurasian groups associated with a Mousterian archaeological context.
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Dany Coutinho Nogueira. Paléoimagerie appliquée aux Homo sapiens de Qafzeh (Paléolithique moyen, Levant sud). Variabilité normale et pathologique. Anthropologie biologique. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEP072⟩. ⟨tel-02637178⟩

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