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Le récit des origines dans la « Estoria de España » d'Alphonse X le Sage (1252-1284)

Abstract : The Estoria de España was written under the aegis of Alfonso X the Wise, king of Castile and León (1252-1284). The chronicle traces the history of Spain and specifically of Castile, from the origins to the thirteenth century. Although many renowned researchers have studied the Estoria, all these works, which are also indispensable, propose only a partial vision of the chronicle. No comprehensive study has been devoted to the narration from origins to Pelagius, even though it seems to us that the story of the origins plays a fundamental role in the Estoria. The first 565 chapters cannot be considered as a simple preliminary without any political connotation. The analysis of the various episodes, the numerous portraits, the mythical structures, as well as the methods of writing present in the narrative allowed us to unearth the links, between this chronicle and the alfonsine ideal. We have highlighted the particular processes used by the Wise King to build the great age and prestige of Spain, the only qualities capable of founding legitimacy. Alfonso X stands out both from his European neighbors – who founded their antiquity on the Trojan myth – and from his peninsular sources – focused on Visigothic origins – and slides towards what we have called a non-exclusive neo-Gothicism, tinged with neo-Romanism. Henceforth it is no longer so much of a real lineage that the Wise King can claim, but of a symbolic, political, sapiential and spiritual lineage. He establishes a two-level continuity, a continuity inscribed in the long time, the translatio imperii, and a direct continuity between each founder, each exemplary king and himself. This incessant transfer of power through time allows the ruler to legitimize his way of exercising power. The chronicle thus claims a role of pastor and vicar for the king who does not need the intercession or the tutelage of the Church. As for the nobility, it is in some ways erased from the chronicle. The nobles are placed in a relationship of dependence concerning the king. Every complication, every disappointment met by Alfonso X in reality seems to find their answer in the chronicle. Skilfully mingling biblical, ancient and medieval structures and topics, the sovereign develops a myth of national creation and celebrates a common territory and past, guarantors of Hispanic identity. The story of origins is therefore programmatic, and more than that, performative. It is a total project, at once royal, societal and national.
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Soizic Escurignan. Le récit des origines dans la « Estoria de España » d'Alphonse X le Sage (1252-1284). Littératures. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BOR30030⟩. ⟨tel-02632500⟩

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