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Analyses biomécanique et physiologique des modes de propulsion synchrone et asynchrone chez les basketteurs en fauteuil roulant manuel

Abstract : Wheelchair basketball (WB) is practiced by sportsmen in Manual Wheelchair (MWC) whose deficiency has a direct impact on their physical capacities and their performances. The evaluation of the physical capacities of the athletes is an essential element of the follow-up of their training, allowing them to maintain or improve their performances and to limit the risks of injuries. Although we know that the athletes use mainly two modes of propulsion (Synchronous - Syn - and Asynchronous - Asy), few studies have focused on their comparative analysis in WB players and most of them have been carried out in the laboratory, with healthy subjects. However, we have very few studies comparing laboratory - field and valid – WB players allowing to affirm that the tests carried out in the laboratory, in addition on healthy subjects, are representative of the reality of the WB practice in the field. Thus, this thesis aims to study the various techniques of MWC propulsion with WB players to help improve performance and reduce the risk of injuries’ factors related to the constraints of discipline. For this, the first step was to compare the physiological and biomechanical responses of Asy propulsion between the treadmill and the field. We have shown that the analysis of the Asy propulsion is not recommended on a treadmill because it does not completely reproduce the ground conditions, in particular because of the greater steering movements for this mode of propulsion, corresponding to the lateral movements of the MWC, which is neutralized by the attach of the MWC on the treadmill. However, on the field, this steering makes the athlete to correct his trajectory to be as straight as possible. We found that the energy cost is higher and that some biomechanical parameters are modified compared to a propulsion on the treadmill where the steering is neutralized. We hypothesize that, depending on his residual abilities, the athlete uses his trunk muscles more intensively to ensure his postural stability during Asy mode of propulsion. Then, a comparison of the two modes of propulsion was carried out in the field during three types of tests: firstly, during submaximal tests (session of 4 min at 8 km.h-1), secondly, during progressive endurance test like Vameval to measure the aerobic capacity of athletes, and finally during sprints to measure the anaerobic capacity of athletes. The results show that the Asy propulsion increases the time parameters (recovery time and cycle time) as well as the efficiency of the propulsion while the Syn propulsion seems to be more efficient and more at risk of developing injuries. Finally, using a FRET instrumented ergometer coupled to a motion analysis system, we also quantified the effect of these two modes of propulsion on symmetry and trunk movements. For this, we chose to analyze the influence of Syn and Asy propulsion mode during start-up and during steady state propulsion, with sport subjects. The results show that Asy propulsion induces more asymmetry compared to Syn propulsion. Medial-lateral trunk movements associated with medial-lateral superior amplitudes of center of pression displacement and higher steering movements observed in the Asy mode suggest greater postural instability and increased muscular trunk activity. Thus, in view of these results, depending on the physical abilities of the athlete, the game phases and the training period, it would be more recommended to choose one or other of the propulsion modes. The improvement of the performances during the propulsion in straight line and without ball, seems to us to pass by using the Syn mode of propulsion whereas the Asy propulsion would be to recommend for the prevention of the injuries and the recovery.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 26, 2020 - 11:20:49 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:24:25 AM


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Marjolaine Astier. Analyses biomécanique et physiologique des modes de propulsion synchrone et asynchrone chez les basketteurs en fauteuil roulant manuel. Education. COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019AZUR4059⟩. ⟨tel-02628536⟩



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