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Microarchitecture osseuse et adiposité médullaire de la mandibule : étude expérimentale chez la ratte adulte ovariectomisée

Abstract : Osteoporosis is a common disease of the skeleton characterized by a loss of bone mass and changes in bone structure. These variations in bone properties, observed at various scales and associated with an increase in the bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) content, indicate a greater fragility of the skeleton in a site-specific manner. This variation in the BMAT content, reported in some skeletal sites, seems to play a crucial role in the occurrence of osteoporosis. Nevertheless, these bone and marrow alterations, both quantitative and qualitative, are controversial and still poorly documented in the jaw bones, the mandible in particular.The aim of our study was to investigate, during aging and in a rodent model of osteoporosis (adult ovariectomized rat), the relationships between the changes in the bone microstructure, the marrow fat content and its distribution in the mandibular site in comparison with a reference site, the tibia. The bone microstructure, the bone marrow fat content and its distribution after osmium tetroxide staining were analyzed by a specific X-ray microfocus tomography approach in the mandible in the teeth-bearing area (alveolar bone) and in the condyle. During aging, neither bone nor bone marrow alterations have been observed. In contrast, estrogen deficiency did lead to more important bone loss (+35%) in the tibia than in the mandible associated with site-specific microstructural and BMAT modifications. Indeed, in comparison with the tibia, a low BMAT content (<10% of marrow volume) was found in the alveolar bone as well as in the condyle. Compared to tibia which reveals a clustering of the marrow adipocytes at the trabecular bone surface, the mandibular BMAT content was homogeneously distributed and located further away with almost no contact with the trabecular bone surface. In conclusion, our results indicate a moderate bone loss in the mandible compared to the tibia associated with an increase in the BMAT content whose distribution within the marrow spaces is not modified in contrast to tibia. We hypothesize that a differential bone turn-over rate, biomechanical stress may explain in part the mandibular physiopathological specificities reported. Further studies will be needed to precise the impact of such alterations on bone quality at the molecular and elemental level, as well as to depict the mechanisms of dialog between osteoblasts and adipocytes.
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Xavier Coutel. Microarchitecture osseuse et adiposité médullaire de la mandibule : étude expérimentale chez la ratte adulte ovariectomisée. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S021⟩. ⟨tel-02617059⟩

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