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Theses

High-frequency trading : statistical analysis, modelling and regulation

Abstract : This thesis is made of two related parts. In the first one, we study the empirical behaviour of high-frequency traders on European financial markets. We use the obtained results to build in the second part new agent-based models for market dynamics. The main purpose of these models is to provide innovative tools for regulators and exchanges allowing them to design suitable rules at the microstructure level and to assess the impact of the various participants on market quality.In the first part, we conduct two empirical studies on unique data sets provided by the French regulator. It covers the trades and orders of the CAC 40 securities, with microseconds accuracy and labelled by the market participants identities. We begin by investigating the behaviour of high-frequency traders compared to the rest of the market, notably during periods of stress, in terms of liquidity provision and trading activity. We work both at the day-to-day scale and at the intra-day level. We then deepen our analysis by focusing on liquidity consuming orders. We give some evidence concerning their impact on the price formation process and their information content according to the different order flow categories: high-frequency traders, agency participants and proprietary participants.In the second part, we propose three different agent-based models. Using a Glosten-Milgrom type approach, the first model enables us to deduce the whole limit order book (bid-ask spread and volume available at each price) from the interactions between three kinds of agents: an informed trader, a noise trader and several market makers. It also allows us to build a spread forecasting methodology in case of a tick size change and to quantify the queue priority value. To work at the individual agent level, we propose a second approach where market participants specific dynamics are modelled by non-linear and state dependent Hawkes type processes. In this setting, we are able to compute several relevant microstructural indicators in terms of the individual flows. It is notably possible to rank market makers according to their own contribution to volatility. Finally, we introduce a model where market makers optimise their best bid and ask according to the profit they can generate from them and the inventory risk they face. We then establish theoretically and empirically a new important relationship between inventory and volatility.
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Pamela Saliba. High-frequency trading : statistical analysis, modelling and regulation. Trading and Market Microstructure [q-fin.TR]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLX044⟩. ⟨tel-02614337⟩

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