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Chapitres et société en Révolution : les chanoines en France de l'Ancien Régime à la monarchie de Juillet

Abstract : The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (12th July 1790) was a brutal rupture in French canonial life and is therefore often taken as an end date for studies of the history of the ordo canonicus. This dissertation, however, proposes to examine the reconstruction of the old canonial chapters under the Concordat until the disappearance of the old clergy in the middle of the 19th century. Indeed, studying the intermediary clergy as represented by the canonical chapters, allows us to gain a better understanding of the evolutions of clerical society from the end of the beneficiary system, at the close of the Ancien Régime, to the rise of the "notables" society. The dissertations follows a twin methodological axis. The first approach is that of ecclesiology: this approach will aim to explain the significance of the revolutionary suppression of cathedral chapters and their reorganisation under the Concordat. Heir to the ancient presbyterium, senate of the diocesan Church and endowed with the episcopal jurisdiction when the see is vacant, the cathedral chapter can be regarded as an ecclesiological locus in which to study the relationships between bishops and priests, universal and local Church, at a time when the movement towards Rome in French Catholicism is picking up speed. The second approach resides in the prosopographical study of French canons from 1789 to 1848, on the basis of a sample of twelve dioceses. The thesis will endeavour to reconstruct both the revolutionary experience of the Ancien Régime canons, who make up the core of the new chapters after 1802, and the careers of the canons of the Concordat, who, despite their subordination to episcopal authority, came to constitute an intermediary élite integrated within a new system of clerical notability.
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François Hou. Chapitres et société en Révolution : les chanoines en France de l'Ancien Régime à la monarchie de Juillet. Histoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PA01H104⟩. ⟨tel-02614313⟩

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